Kidneys Stones : prevention, diagnosis and


 MS, DNB, MNAMS, McH (Urology)

Consultant Urologist. EDMC

Dr. Piyush Gupta

Kidney Stones

Alright, imagine your kidneys as these really cool filters with many functionalities, but sometimes they decide to go rogue and create these little stones. Now, These stones can be as tiny as sand or as big as a ping pong ball – I heard that ouch from you, I know, Painful!

These stones are hard deposits that form in the kidneys when certain substances, such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid, accumulate and crystallize in the kidneys.


You would be shocked to know how common many of these causes are. I am sure you personally have a few of these.

Well… I guess its time to stop! Sometimes of course even genetics and certain medical conditions can team up to throw some stones your way!


Diet and Lifestyle Factors:

Inadequate fluid intake
High sodium and protein consumption
Excessive intake of oxalate-rich foods (spinach, chocolate, etc.)
Low calcium intake (paradoxical but true)

Metabolic Factors:

Hypercalciuria (excess calcium in urine)
Hyperoxaluria (elevated oxalate levels in urine)
Hyperuricosuria (high uric acid in urine)
Cystinuria (a rare genetic disorder)
Other Contributing Factors:

Family history of kidney stones
Dehydration or inadequate fluid balance
Certain medical conditions (gout, urinary tract infections)
Certain medications (diuretics, antacids)



What are the symptoms of Kidney Stones?

The presence and severity of symptoms you may have can vary depending on the size and location of the kidney stones. But one thing is sure, kidney stones sure know how to make their entrance- Whether its intense back or side pain that feels like you were in a brutal fight or bathroom adventures you did not sign up for ! Some of the Common symptoms are

  • Intense, colicky pain in the back or side (renal colic)
  • Blood in urine (hematuria)
  • Frequent urination
  • Painful urination
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting

Book an Appointment with a Urologist if you feel like you have any concerning issue!

Which tests can help diagnose Kidney Stones?

Stones are tricky and painful, but to catch them, we’ve got a few tricks up our sleeves too!

Imaging Studies:

    • Non-Contrast CT Scan: Provides detailed images to identify the size, location, and number of stones.
    • Ultrasound: Useful for detecting larger stones and assessing the kidneys and urinary tract.
    • X-ray: Helps identify some types of stones, such as those containing calcium

Urine Analysis:

    • Determines the presence of crystals, red blood cells, white blood cells, and infection.

Book an Appointment with a Urologist if you feel like you have any concerning issue!

How can Kidney stones be treated? Is Surgery the only option?

As painful as the stones may be, we can treat them effectively once we diagnose you. Kidney stones is often associated with surgery and pain, but I want to assure you surgery is not the only solution, and even if we conduct a

Conservative Management:

    • Increased Fluid Intake: Drinking plenty of water promotes stone passage.
    • Pain Management: Prescribed analgesics alleviate discomfort during stone passage.
    • Medication: Certain medications can aid stone dissolution or prevent stone recurrence.

Interventional Procedures

    • Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL): Uses shock waves to break stones into smaller fragments for easier passage.
    • Ureteroscopy: Involves passing a thin tube through the urethra and bladder to remove or break stones in the ureter or kidney.
    • Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL): A minimally invasive procedure for larger stones, utilizing a small incision to remove or break them.
    • Surgical Intervention: Rarely required for complex or large stones that cannot be managed with less invasive approaches.

Reach out to Us!